Orange Parades and Their Effects

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The Troubles erected peace lines through Northern Ireland, creating a divide between Catholics and Protestants. Two distinct occurrences that detail the change in the social and political climate of Northern Ireland during the Troubles are murals and the loyalist parades  (If you are intrigued by the murals and their presence in Irish culture you can click [here] to see Jade Chang’s article on that topic). Parades were organized by the Loyal Orders, an organization made to celebrate and defend Loyalist (British) traditions in Northern Ireland. Popular organizations of this Order are the Orange Order, Royal Black Institute, and the Apprentice Boys, the Orange Order being the most popular of the groups. There are multiple sects of the Orange Order based on status, gender, and age, so it really encompasses all Loyalist demographics (1).

Possibly a group preparing the arch for decoration for when an Orange Parade would pass through on July 12, 1915. Showing the long history of them.

With the task of preserving loyalist ideals, the Orange parades occur during anniversaries of Protestant victories over Catholics in skirmishes through both England and Ireland. Even though Nationalists have a history of participating and organizing parades like Loyalists, this tradition petered out and became a Loyalist custom.  Loyalists used this thought process to their advantage and began to use things like marching bands to accompany music to the parades, adding “spectacle” for Loyalists and an intimidation tactic for the “other” community (2).  Orange parades even went across the peace line barriers into Catholic territory so the people of the Catholic faith would have to witness the Protestant agenda, which lead to a lot of friction between groups. Fed up with the conditions Catholics were forced to endure, they turned to civil rights marches. These marches were made illegal in the eyes of Northern Ireland’s government soon after bringing more outrage since Orange parades were still permitted. In defiance to these injustices, Catholics organized marches for their natural born rights without regard for the law, leading to tragedies like [Bloody Sunday] (read more about this on Eamon’s page describing this massacre). This showing the dynamic between Protestants and Catholics quite well, with Loyalists being about an uprising so they responded to small infractions with big actions and Nationalists just desperate to have their voices to be heard while being continually silenced until violence broke out amongst sides.

A loyalist parade going through the streets of Glasgow
The response to a catholic civil rights march, bloody sunday in Londonderry.

These parades have not ended and have maintained an air of tension between Catholics and Protestant due to the background and context of them. Celebrating these events each year bringing a sense of tradition but also stubbornness, Loyalists partaking partially just to show Nationalists they are still able to go through with these parades.  At a certain point you have to wonder how fun these parades are to watch due to the fact that there are 9 foot walls erected between the spectator and the parade out of the fear of the bomb threats and bombings the parades have seen throughout the past (3). The only resistance people have to stopping these practices are that it interrupts tradition and erases history, reminding me of the current debate in the United States over the destruction of confederate statues. Even though these confederate statues symbolize slavery and are sending horrible messages to the African American community, people are still attached to them due to the historical significance. However, there is a thin line when appreciating historical landmarks. Just because something is old, it shouldn’t mean people can glorify old ways that won’t work in this time and age, especially within cities such as Belfast because each mural, memorial, and event of commemoration seems to only show a biased view of their history. Not giving a truthful outlook on the wrongs both sides carried out on the other side of these peace lines. The effects these parades have on societal issues in the current climate are still unhealthy and are stunting the growth of their culture. Both Nationalist and Loyalist sides of Northern Ireland are still spiteful and passive aggressive, forming an unwelcome standard for the new generation to adhere to. When Northern Ireland partakes in these biased commemorations like the parades, it indoctrinates the youth with the same aggressive thoughts that could lead to another conflict later on. This ideology being akin to our page, [Borders, Boundaries, and their Function in Northern Irish History], discussing the social boundary between the Nationalists and Loyalists that erects physical borders and political stigmas. This then creates more social boundaries and so on and so forth as each generation gets dragged in until boundaries can be resolved and borders can be brought down.

You can return to our main page [here] also check out Carina’s post on the Belfast Agreement [Here]


This video below shows the type of unrest between Nationalist and Loyalists during the parades.


(1) Mcatackney, Laura. “Memorials and Marching: Archaeological Insights into Segregation in Contemporary Northern Ireland.” Historical Archaeology 49, Page 118

(2) Mcatackney, Laura. “Memorials and Marching: Archaeological Insights into Segregation in Contemporary Northern Ireland.” Historical Archaeology 49, Page 119

(3) Mcatackney, Laura. “Memorials and Marching: Archaeological Insights into Segregation in Contemporary Northern Ireland.” Historical Archaeology 49, Page 122

Irish Gangs in New York

Within the Five Points neighborhood–arguably the worst slum in the city–Irishmen sought to create a sense of community, authenticity, and belonging for themselves. This craving for an identity, as well as their need for food and money, led them to form gangs. Gangs gave Irish immigrants a way to cultivate a community without being discriminated against or judged for their lack of education and finances.

Initially, gangs were peaceful, although this did not last for very long. Irish immigrants quickly grew tired of the way they were being treated–feeling inferior to others threatened them and undermined their masculinity–and lashed out with violence and crime. Gangs very quickly became associated with criminals, and the stereotype of the “fighting Irish” was perpetuated.

One of the most well-known gangs around this time was known as the Dead Rabbits. It was formed by a man named John Morrissey, a former boxer–which only perpetuated the violent Irish stereotype. At that time, most Americans were unjustly prejudiced against Irish immigrants, believing them to be dirty, uncivilized, and drunken. The formation of gangs only made these stereotypes more believable.

John Morrisey, the founder and leader of the Dead Rabbits gang.

Ironically, though, most gangs weren’t exclusively interested in organized crime. the Dead Rabbits, as well as other Irish-based gangs, often rioted over discrimination against their people, and would back politicians who promoted fair pay and treatment for immigrants.

Mayor Fernando Wood, a politician who was supported by the Dead Rabbits because he advocated for the welfare of immigrants and minorities.

These gangs, although they started off harmless enough, became what Irish immigrants were known for. They still play a part in how Irish people are viewed today–stereotypes such as the “fighting Irish” or the idea that all Irishmen are alcoholics can still be seen in contemporary settings. Furthermore, gangs are sensationalized in media, such as Martin Scorsese’s cult classic film, Gangs of New York, which also influenced how people viewed the Irish.


Works Cited:

Kennedy, Robert C. “On This Day: July 10th, 1875.” The New York Times, The New York Times,
Serena, Katie. “The Dead Rabbits, The Bowery Boys, And The Great July 4th Riot.” All That’s Interesting, All That’s Interesting, 6 Feb. 2018,
Photo Sources:

“Fernando Wood (1812-1881).”,

“John Morrissey.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Dec. 2018,

Murals in Belfast

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The Troubles were a violent time period which produced peacelines and and a myriad of art which included murals and graffiti. Peacelines were these huge walls that stand over 50 feet that were placed in areas of strife between Loyalists and Republicans. The concept of these walls were first developed after a riot for civil rights occurred on August 16, 1969 where violence between the two groups got chaotic enough that a human chain of soldiers had to be formed. A month later, a wall was built in the predominately Republican Falls Road and Loyalist Shankill Road. (1) While these walls were intended to reduce violence, an unintended effect of these walls was cultivation of murals since the walls were a popular medium choice. Before I get into my post, I wanted to let you know that I’ll be focusing on murals in Belfast. If you’d like analysis in a different part of Northern Ireland, I would check out Eamon’s post which covers borders and boundaries in Derry and more.

This Peacewall connects Shankill Road and Falls Road

Throughout history, art has always been a powerful and disruptive force used to convey discontentment be it socially or politically. However, an overlooked component of art is its ability to demarcate based on imagined communities. While we often associate graffiti to gang-life in New York and maybe California (sorry as a New Yorker I need to represent), the Republicans and the Loyalists in Belfast were arguably the original gangsters. A prominent gang that emerged out of Shankill Road was the Shankill Butchers. This ferocious gang would kidnap and murder Catholics in a distinctive way: by slashing their throats with a butcher knife. Their actions would then send the message that Catholics were not welcome in their territory. Not that I was ever involved with a gang, knock on wood, but usually I find that they partake in forms of vandalization. While gangs in the present day used random building walls as their canvas, Loyalists and Republicans had random building walls as well as peacelines.

These murals served as identity markers and contained unspoken implications such as “pictures of hatred” that intended to intimidate and threaten the opposite community or empower people of the same imagined community. They were everyday reminders that outsiders were about to enter a territory that didn’t belong to them. However this interpretation is quite surface-level and the murals could be analysed further by arguing that they could also cross social boundaries and lead to further imagined communities amongst the population. 

This mural contains iconic Loyalist symbols such as the Union Jack and the Queen. The showcase of this mural is similar to people in the U.S. displaying Confederate flags.










Unlike the first mural  sometimes art is more explicit in demarcating territories.







This mural utilizes Argentine Marxist, Che Guevara. Both the Republicans and Argentines can relate to being oppressed.











Bobby Sands, a member of the IRA who died on hunger strike.  He was a popular symbol, particularly with the Republican community and his death attracted worldwide coverage.







There were also murals for the feminist movements in both the Loyalist and Republican community and to represent the rising immigrant population with increasing Chinese, Indian, and Somali, and more. (2) Here’s a video that shows different murals that not only act as markers between Catholics and Protestant, but also bring influences from influential figures such as Che Guevara, Nelson Mandela and other causes such as support for Palestine.

However, I’m going to be honest. The social boundaries of the murals were extremely unfair in terms of Loyalist and Republican treatment. Police officers in Belfast were often biased and encouraged murals that aligned with Protestant culture. Catholics on the other hand were under constant suspicion and experienced more cases of police brutality than Protestants. In 1980, a 16-year-old boy was working on a mural and was shot when the officer thought his paintbrush was a gun. (3)

Other cases of police brutality were projected through atrocities performed by  different British police forces such as the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). The British government turning a blind eye to the blatant injustice provided plenty of room for social manipulation of boundaries that lead to worsened Protestant and Catholic relations. Although horrific torture was used by both sides, the British were responsible for a larger scale of victims as seen by the  RUC below since they would:

  • bend prisoners’ wrists backward
  • Pull the hairs on a prisoner’s chest or lift a prisoner up by his moustache
  • Pour cola into prisoners’ ears
  • Kicking and squeezing testicles
  • Placing plastic bags or soiled underwear over a prisoner’s head
  • Role-play: some guards would ride prisoners like a horse
  • Force prisoners to eat guards’ nasal mucus
  • Burning prisoners’ hands on radiator pipes
  • Rape and/or threats of rape
  • Sexual assault

Following these crimes against humanity, no one in the RUC was jailed and instead, the government simply paid the victims some compensation. (4)

The combination of unjust behavior along with the murals reminding both communities of Belfast’s history is part of the many reasons why Catholics are still extremely angry even after when the Troubles were declared “over” with the Belfast Agreement in 1998. For more information on the Belfast Agreement, check out Carina’s post HERE. Other reminders such as the Orange Parades are also modern-day reminders of Catholic subjugation, which prolongs segregation, similar to how some holidays in the U.S. open up old wounds. The Orange Parades are considered a spectacle since it involves a marching band, thus disguising the meaning of the preservation of Protestant privilege. Thanksgiving is similar in the sense that its origins are disguised by traditional dishes such as turkey and pumpkin pie. We don’t think of Thanksgiving as anything harmful, except to our waistlines but to some Native Americans, they see it as a celebration of genocide to their people. My brief spiel aside, I would check out Natalie’s post which goes more in depth into Orange Parades.

Following up, wouldn’t the easiest solution to maintain peace be to remove the Orange Parades? Not so much. There have already been debates on totally removing the march and even compromising with the march only staying on Protestant Routes. However, Protestant justification of the march is tradition. Because they’ve been marching for centuries, they can’t just take away a centuries-old tradition. What do you think we should do? I’ll part with this: We’re told to embrace our culture and celebrate tradition, but what if it’s at the expense of another group?

Below I’ve compiled a list of suggested reading in case you’re interested in any of the topics covered in my blog post.

  1. Emily Ravenscroft (2009) “The Meaning of the Peacelines of Belfast”, Peace Review, 21:2, 213-221, DOI: 10.1080/10402650902877450.
  2. Debbie Lisle “Local Symbols, Global Networks: Rereading the Murals of Belfast.” Alternatives 31, no. 1 (January 2006): 27–52. doi:10.1177/030437540603100102.
  3. Ibid., pg. 35.
  4. John Conroy, Belfast Diary: War as a Way of Life (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), pg. 47-48.

Patriarchal Society

Gangs of New York
Taken from

Patriarchy is described as a male-dominant social system. In this system, a male acts as the head of a social group oftentimes described as a “family” (Napikoski & Lewis 1). This father-like figure is a symbol of both power and a punitive force, pleasure and pain. It is within the perceived power of a leader – or the gang that he heads – that one would join.

As Irish immigrants fled to the states, they would be met by the depredation of discrimination through nativist views. As these immigrants felt oppressed, they would often band-together in order to feel safer as a group, under one individual identity of Irish, led by a male figure.

For more information on specific patriarchal figures, click here.


Works Cited

Napikoski, Linda, and Jone Johnson Lewis. “What Is a Patriarchal Society and    How Does It Relate to Feminism?” Thoughtco., Dotdash, 3 Sept. 2018,

Photograph of film Gangs of New York. The Ace Black Blog, 6 February 2002,

Irish American Identity

Welcome to our site about Irish-American Identity! All throughout history, Ireland has sought to create an identity for themselves. After being religiously and politically oppressed by Britain, many Irish citizens immigrated to America, where they hoped for a better, more liberated life–one in which they were free to express themselves and create their own identities. Instead, they were met with adversity and blatant prejudice at every turn. Irish immigrants found it extremely difficult to assimilate with Americans, as they were often less educated and less financially stable than them. As a result, they banded together in order to create that sense of identity that they lacked.

But what exactly is Irish-American identity? It’s difficult to create an exact definition for this term because of its dynamic nature. Irish-American identity originated in various ways but is by no means set in stone. One of the methods through which this identity formed was Irish gangs. Irish gang life was founded on the basis of an authentic Irish identity in a patriarchal society. Another method through which Irish American identity was formed was through cultural rituals like the St. Patrick’s Day Parade. The urban landscape of New York City also played a role in the formation of Irish-American gang life and identity. However, Irish-American identity is culturally constructed and, therefore, created by people which means it is subject to change.

Why Should You Care About Irish-American Identity?

Learning about Irish-American identity, how it forms and changes, can help you reflect on your own cultural identity, whether you’re Irish-American or not. We have often taken cultural identities like this for granted and do not analyze how they have been historically formed and how they change over time. We hope that in having a greater understanding of these concepts about identity can allow people to look at cultures throughout the world in a different light, and further understand the experiences of immigrant groups and how they maintain cultural identities, under the pressure of assimilation.


For more information about us click here.

If you are unsure about how to navigate this site click here.

Authenticity of Irish Identity


Having an authentic “Irishness” implies that there is a pure core element to the culture which is simply not true. The concept of Irish identity and culture is constantly changing, therefore making it impossible to establish one true definition of Irish identity. Another obstacle that stands in the way of establishing an explanation for what it means to be truly Irish is the rigidity of the rules  set in place. At most, a person could only have a sense or feeling of Irish identity, but not have a true grasp on it.

Authenticity played a large role in Irish American gang life. The formation of gangs in the United States was greatly based off culture and ethnic background. Those who were not of Irish descent were not allowed to be involved in the Irish gang life. The selectivity was based on heritage because people identified more with those of the same culture. They were able to connect with each other on a deeper level because of the shared customs, traditions, and values. 

Irish-American gangs also formed due to the treatment of the Irish immigrants by the Americans. Like the Irish, the Americans also had a sense of pure “Americanness” which also had requirements, to be born in America. With this “pure” American identity, the Irish, along with other immigrant groups, were viewed as “the other” and therefore not truly American. The pure link that each group felt led to a struggle in the power dynamic between the two. This posed the question, which was more powerful? Who truly controlled the streets of New York? Rivalries between the Irish and the Americans grew intense and resulted in dozens of brawls and murders.

The authenticity of the culture was very important to the Irish-Americans because it was important in their home country. Memories of their previous lives and the longing for the old Ireland led to the search for an authentic Irish culture ; but the truth is that this “true” Irish culture does not really exist. Instead, the essence of Ireland is found in sublime objects and landscape. The feeling of “the essence of Ireland” is fleeting and can never be grasped entirely. Perhaps that played a part in the dismantling of these organizations.

Despite its dynamic nature, there are some key elements of Irish culture that emulate what it means to be truly Irish. Some of these core ideas include Catholicism,  and the patriarchy. Although these elements were more relevant during the late 19th and early 20th century they are less important to Irish culture today due to social changes in society.

LGBT Irish

Since Catholicism is an important aspect of Irish-American identity there is a tension between being Irish-American and being LGBT, since Catholicism is against homosexuality. The Chicago St. Patricks Day parade, the second largest, LGBT groups were allowed to march in the 1990s (Compton). However, change came less easy in other major St. Patrick’s Day Parades, like the one in New York City.  In terms of the New York St. Patrick’s Day parade, the largest in the country, the Ancient Order of the Hibernians who sponsor the parade received an application from the Irish Gay and Lesbian Organization to participate in the 1991 St. Patrick’s Day Parade (Marston). This application was denied resulting in a years-long battle over whether or not Irish LGBT groups would be allowed to march in the parade under their own banner. This battle resulted in multiple court cases, and LGBT people being arrested at almost every New York City St. Patrick’s Day parade until the ban was lifted (Marston).

However, the situation for LGBT Irish-Americans is improving. In 2015 Ireland became the first country to legalize same-sex marriage via popular vote (Compton). In addition to that, that same year New York City’s St. Patrick’s Day Parade allowed their first LGBT organization to march in the parade, Out@NBCUniversal, this lifted the ban on LGBT groups marching in the parade (Schlossberg).


Works Cited

Compton, Julie. “Fighting Irish: Battle for LGBTQ Inclusion in St. Patrick’s Day Parades Continues.” NBC News. Last updated March 13, 2018.

Marston, Sallie A. “Making Difference: Conflict Over Irish Identity in the New York St. Patrick’s Day Parade.” Political Geography 21. no. 3. March 2002. Accessed November 10, 2018.

Schlossberg, Tatiana. “St. Patrick’s Day Parade Includes First Gay Group, But Dismay Remains.” New York Times. March 17, 2015.

Picture Source

“Irish LGBT Rainbow Flag.” Wikimedia Commons. Last updated February 1, 2012.


American Views on Irish Immigrants

The Irish people have been viewed in a negative light by people of other nations, particularly Great Britain, for centuries. The political cartoon above was drawn by Thomas Nast, known for anti-Irish cartoons featured in Harper’s Magazine. This particular cartoon mocks both the Irish mafia and Irish immigrants in general. The ape-like man is often used in anti-Irish political cartoons, implying that they are uncivilized savages. He is sitting on top of a barrel of rum, implying that alcohol is the foundation of their lifestyle and they are dependent on it. However, he is wearing finer clothes which suggests that he is putting on a costume and pretending to be something that he is not, a civilized man, and therefore cannot be trusted. All of these qualities portrayed in this particular cartoon confirm the degrading Irish stereotype which originated with the British.

The picture painted of the Irish by the British was an uncivilized, filthy, uneducated, drunkards. Irish people immigrated to America in hopes of escaping the insulting labels placed on them; however, the stereotype of the Irishman trailed closely behind wherever they went.

The Irish were the most impoverished group of immigrants in the United States, the lowest of the low in New York City; which did not help to disprove the British stereotype (Anbinder 149). In response to facing the prejudices from Americans, Irish immigrants decided to band together and support each other and have a sense of unity among themselves . They formed social clubs, mostly just for men, in order to bond over their common troubles in life such as living conditions, economic situations, and discrimination by Americans. These clubs eventually evolved into some of the first gangs of New York City.

The Americans greatly disliked the Irish for several reasons, but mostly because of the inaccurate stereotype that they knew so well.  Their information on the Irish was mainly from British sources and , therefore, biased. They did not want to associate with the Irish because they believed that they were superior to the immigrants (Harriot). The Irish were viewed as “the other”, not assimilating into American society well due to the insulting stereotype.

This is a cartoon drawn by Thomas Nast of rioting at the St. Patrick’s Day parade in 1867.  This was not the first brawl between the metropolitan police and the Irish and it would not be the last due to cultural and political  differences.

Although conditions have improved some, immigration is still a heated topic that is heavily debated today.  Even today immigrants are still viewed as dangerous and the “other”. The United States faces the same issues in the 19th century as it does today; but these debates have been going on for centuries and probably will never come to a conclusion. In both time periods there are people who fear immigrants are taking too many jobs, who believe immigrants are corrupting society but politics in particular, which is what Thomas Nast believed (Herb), and many more negative associations with immigration. However, society generally has become more accepting of foreigners as opposed to the 19th century.

Works Cited

Anbinder, Tyler. City of Dreams: the 400-Year Epic History of Immigrant New           York. Mariner Books/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017.

Harriot, Michael. “When the Irish Weren’t White.” The Root,                                       ,                                                                                                                                 17 Mar. 2018,                                 1793358754.

Pages, The Society. “Irish Apes: Tactics of De-Humanization – Sociological                 Images.” Sociological Images Racializing the Abortion Debate Comments,                    humanization/.

“The Day We Celebrate · HERB: Resources for Teachers.” Herb – Social History           for Every Classroom,

St. Patrick’s Day Parade

The celebration of St. Patrick’s Day in America started in the 1830s and 1840s, due to the influx of Irish immigrants due to the Potato Famine. In Ireland St. Patrick’s day was celebrated as a “non-festive holy day of obligation” (Moss 126). The Ancient Order of the Hibernians, an Irish Catholic charitable society, started organizing the New York City St. Patrick’s Day parade in the 1830s (Marston). The parade and the general celebration of St. Patrick’s day was used as a way to celebrate Irish-American identity. At one point it was even the most popular ethnic celebration in America and helped develop how other people viewed Irish Americans.


Due to how Irish identity is constructed through the St. Patrick’s Day parade, who is allowed to participate acts a boundary of who can be Irish-American. Patriarchy being a component of Irish-American identity resulted in women not being able to hold leadership positions including grand marshall of the St. Patrick’s Day parade until 1989, when Dorothy Hayden Cudany host of the “Irish Memories” radio program won the nomination (Barron). This ended a 229-year ban on women being the grand marshall of the New York City parade(Barron). Also due to the importance of Catholicism, there has historically and today been a struggle over allowing LGBT groups to march in the St. Patrick’s Day parade.


Works Cited

Barron, James. “After 229 Years, Irishwoman to lead Parade.” New York Times. February 1, 1989.

 Marston, Sallie A.“Making Difference: Conflict Over Irish Identity in the New York St. Patrick’s Day Parade.” Political Geography 21. no. 3 (March 2002). Accessed November 10, 2018.

Moss, Kenneth. “St. Patrick’s Day Celebrations and the Formation of Irish-American Identity, 1845-1875.” Journal of Social History 29. No. 1. Autumn 1995: 125-148.

Picture Sources

“Ancient Order of the Hibernians.” Wikimedia Commons. Last updated November 2, 2011.

“New York City St. Patrick’s Day Parade DVIDS261036.” Wikimedia Commons. Last updated March 18, 2018.

Countess Markievicz

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Constance Markievicz and her sister Eva Gore-Booth

Constance Gore-Booth, who would later become the Countess Markievicz was of planter stock and from an English noble family.  With her background, she was an unlikely candidate to become one of the leaders of the Rising.[1]  The Countess was a lieutenant and sentenced to penal servitude for her participation in the rising.[2]  She converted from Protestantism to Catholicism.[3]  The Countess was one of the leading members and founded with Bulmer Hobson (an IRB, Gaelic Athletic Association Sinn Féin activist), Na Fianna Éireann.  She had an ascendancy background which was unconventional for Republicans.  She was a mother to the Fianna Boys; she regularly showed her affection when she was missing or spoiling them.[4]

Fianna Éireann scouts with Countess Markievicz.

She urged the Irish boy scout movement with Fianna Fireann, a military organization.  The boy scouts were taught scouting and shooting.  Many boys were always at the countesses’ house studying and playing.[5]  She trained the boys in Fianna.  The boys were capable of holding a building and proved to do so for three days.  The Countess instructed them every Sunday.  She sincerely cared about the boys.  The Countess was the first to put Margaret Skinnider into boy’s clothes.  The Countess never knew what guests she had, they would climb in through the windows.  She would sell jewels for the republic cause and was fearless.  She also fed refugees and sister activists.[6]

Countess Markievicz in uniform.

The Countess Markievicz was the only woman that held a position of command.[7]  In jail, the Countess was ridiculed by Dublin Fusiliers.  They were lenient on the Countess.[8]  She arrived at the Kilmainham jail in uniform.[9]  The Countess was the only woman to be court-martialed, her life was probably spared because she was a woman.[10]  The Countess was one of a number of women who participated in the Easter Rising.






[1] Skinnider, Margaret. 2016. Doing My Bit For Ireland (Illustrated Edition). S.l.: Echo Library. 10.

[2] Skinnider, 2016. 57.

[3] McGarry, 161.

[4] McGarry, Fearghal. 2017. The Rising: Ireland: Easter 1916. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 30.

[5] Skinnider, 2016. 12.

[6] Skinnider, 2016. 11.

[7] McGarry, 164.

[8] McGarry, 259.

[9] McGarry, 261.

[10] McGarry, 270.





Primary Sources

Skinnider, Margaret. 2016. Doing My Bit For Ireland (Illustrated Edition). S.l.: Echo Library.


Secondary Sources

McGarry, Fearghal. 2017. The Rising: Ireland: Easter 1916. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wills, Clair. Dublin 1916 – the Siege of the Gpo. London: Profile Books, 2010.